INTRODUCTORY ESSAY. 115 We cannot dismiss this branch of the subject without al- luding to a few anomalies in the distribution of Indian plants. Of these, the most remarkable are the prevalence of Oaks and Chesnuts throughout the Himalaya, Klmsia, and Mnlayan Peninsula, descending to the level of the sea in East JSeu^al, Malaya, Sumatra, Java, and Korneo, contrasted with tlicir total absence throughout the Peninsula of Hiixdostan and Ceylon. Secondly, the prevalence of Conifcra (along with these Oaks), not only inhabiting high levels, b"t descending considerably below 4000 feet: of these, Pinus, Podocarpus, Taoous, and Dacrydium, are all found in the Malay Peninsula and Khasia, but not one in the Hindostan Peninsula or Cey- lon, though these present far more extensive and loftier mountain-ranges. Thirdly, we would call attention to the absence of Cycadea in Ceylon, and to the comparative rarity of Palms and epiphytic Vacciniacea in that island and in the Peninsula of Hindostan. D. Enumeration and description of the Provinces of India, as they will be referred to in the f Flora Indica*? The primary divisions of Continental India are four:— 1. Hindostan, in the widest sense of that term, including th!c representation of several curious peculiar genera. The Atlantic Islands nnd North America show an equally striking instance, in a representative species of the otherwise American, gcutis Clethra, inhabiting Madeira j Worth America and Western. Europe present others in ISriocaulon seplangulare, Trichoincmes breoisetwn, etc. China and Japati present similar analogies with the west coast of North America. The most curious instance of all is, however, the occurrence in New Zealand of Chilian species of jEdwardsia and Saloragis^ and of repre- sentatives of Fuel&ia, Calceolaria, and other genera, which are found nowhere else throughout the Old World. * The sources from which the pxiblished facts contained in the following pages are derived are top numerous and too well known to raako it desirable to quofcc^tJioxrL ' For many details regarding those districts wliich we luivc not ourselves seen, we have to thank Dr. Wallich, Dr.' Wight, Dr. Gibson, Dr. Stocks, and Captain B. Strachcy. The last-named gentleman lias also very kindly allowed us to make use of tables of mcau temperature and rahvfhll, col- lected with great labour for his work on the Physical Geography of the Hima- laya, now in the press.